Electromagnetic radiation can be classified into two types: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on the capability of a single photon with more than 10 eV energy to ionize oxygen or break chemical bonds. Ultraviolet and higher frequencies, such as X-rays or gamma rays are ionizing, and these pose their own special hazards: see radiation and radiation poisoning. The electric current...[Read More]
368 pages , Oxford University Press , 2010-02-04 For more than three decades, the impact of aid on the global environment has been the subject of vigorous protest and debate. With billions spent on environmental aid each year, this groundbreaking text seeks to understand why aid is given, how effective it is, and whether aid is actually going to the places with the great...[Read More]
The work of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ (prior to 28 November 2006 UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH) covers both basic research and applied research.
The UFZ was established on 12 December 1991. The Centre commenced its research activities on 2 January 1992. The UFZ has locations in Leipzig, Halle and Magdeburg. In addition, it operates experimental statio...[Read More]
18 pages , 2005 The scientific, economic, and political questions surrounding global warming have long been with us. This report focuses instead on a relative newcomer: the legal debate. Though the first court decisions related to global warming appeared over a decade ago, such litigation has proliferated in recent years. The court cases, decided and pending, address four princi...[Read More]
290 pages , Routledge , 2014-10-03 Recycling is not a concept that is usually applied to the eighteenth century. “The environment” may not have existed as a notion then, yet practices of re-use and transformation obviously shaped the early-modern world. Still, this period of booming commerce and exchange was also marked by scarcity and want. This book reveals the fas...[Read More]